Obstructive Sleep Apnea- Impactful Consequences for Children and Adults

Dr. Claudia Quintella

Sleep disorders that effect morbidity and mortality have been studied extensively and have been getting more and more attention in academia, in general and in specialty dental practices. Studies show that Mandibular Advancement therapy, when monitored by a trained and qualified dentist, has been effective both in prevention and treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is correlated with phisiometabolic dysfunctions, genetic and syndromic order problems. OSA studies show a predisposition to hypertension, blood pressure levels in hypertensive patients supported of the Sleep Disorders (reference).

Passeri, in 2014, conducted a study that described an association of Diabetes Mellitus, Tooth Loss in Class III and Hypertension (reference). Patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), decreased functional capacity and
OSA are commonly fond associated in this syndrome and could worsen the prognosis in these patients (reference). In childhood, the Cognitive and Behaviour Changes in the presence of OSAS, increase the Risk of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases (reference).

OSAS also is associated with tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy, obesity, allergic rhinitis, craniofacial malformations, neuromuscular diseases, genetic and metabolic syndromes, from the neonatal period to adolescence, being more common among preschoolers (reference).

The need for an accurate diagnosis of OSAS led to the development of equipment and devices for measuring the characteristics of the airway (Pharyngometer and Rhinometer) and oxygen saturation in blood. Overnight studies, like the Home Sleep Test and oximetry monitors are used to record data in patients admited with Acute Coronary Disease of OSA. Overnight oximetry in this study had a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specifity of 100% of OSA in 43% of 37 Coronary Disease Patients (reference).

All this data must be measured and evaluated. A definitive diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnea disorder (OSA) requires comprehensive testing. Insufficient knowledge of the details of the patient’s condition will influence both the diagnosis and the prognosis of the case. The consequences of misdiagnosed OSA are too serious to not utilize all existing testing technique.

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